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currency: Rwandan franc (RWF)
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Rwanda profile
landlocked;

most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
Rwanda history
In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda

Conventional short form: Rwanda

Local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda

Local short form: Rwanda

Formerly known as: Ruanda, German East Africa
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Rwanda's capital city is Kigali
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Rwanda Constitution:

constitution passed by referendum 26 May 2003
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Rwanda population growth rate: 2.75%
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Rwanda highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
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Rwanda lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
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About 46% of Rwanda's land is arable.
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Kagera River is the Longest River in Rwanda
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Rwanda birth rate is 36 births/1,000 population
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Rwanda infant mortality rate is 63 deaths/1,000 live births
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Rwanda fertility rate is 4.71 children born/woman
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Rwanda climate:

temperate;

two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January);

mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
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Top 10 cities of Rwanda with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Kigali: 745,261
2. Butare: 89,600
3. Gitarama: 87,613
4. Ruhengeri: 86,685
5. Gisenyi: 83,623
6. Byumba: 70,593
7. Cyangugu: 63,883
8. Kibuye: 48,024
9. Rwamagana: 47,203
10. Kibungo: 46,240
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Rwanda ethnic groups:

Hutu (Bantu) - 84%

Tutsi (Hamitic) - 15%

Twa (Pygmy) - 1%
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Rwanda Exports:

coffee
tea
hides
tin ore
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Rwanda Imports:

foodstuffs
machinery and equipment
steel
petroleum products
cement and construction material
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bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning; members to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural)
1. Est (Eastern)
2. Nord (Northern)
3. Ouest (Western)
4. Sud (Southern)

and 1 city (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi): Kigali
Political parties and leaders:
Centrist Democratic Party (PDC) - Agnes MUKABARANGA
Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda (UDPR) - Gonzague RWIGEMA
Democratic Republican Movement (MDR) - Celestin KABANDA (officially banned)
Islamic Democratic Party (PDI)- Musa Fazil HARERIMANA
Liberal Party (PL) - Protais MITALI
Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned)
Party for Progress and Concord (PPC) - Alvera MUKABARAMBA
Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) - Paul KAGAME
Rwandan Socialist Party (PSR) - Jean Baptist RUCIBIGANGO
Social Democratic Party (PSD) - Vincent BIRUTA
Socialist Party-Imberakuri (PS-Imberakuri) - Christine MUKABUNANI
Solidarity and Prosperity Party (PSP) - Pheobe KANYANGE